Global city patterns in the wake of World Expos: A typology and framework for equitable urban development post mega-event
by Jennifer Minner, Grace Yixian Zhou, and Brian Toy
Published in Land Use Policy journal.
International exhibitions, also known as world's fairs or international expos, are important examples of large-scale mega-events. Regulated and promoted by the Bureau of International Expositions, world and specialized expos are purported to aid in the achievement of urban development goals for host cities and nations. Scholars have focused analyses on the social and economic impacts of staging mega-events and in the immediate years after events. In this article, the authors consider the spatial and land use aspects of expo sites, developing a post-expo typology to aid in in-depth and comparative analysis of spatial patterns across sites and years after the mega-event. The authors then present a framework for equitable urban development, to consider the equity dimension of sustainability at former mega-event sites. The urban development typology is then considered with the equitable urban development framework, to propose interventions that are specific to particular expo types. The article links consideration of spatial land use patterns and expo legacies long after the first wave of urban development associated with staging an expo has passed.
More than repairing cracks in the façade: Building systemic change in times of crisis
This article was recently published in Erica Avrami's edited book on Preservation, Sustainability, and Equity. The entire book is freely available to read online, as well as for sale in print form.
I wrote this chapter in 2020 to readers of the near future. The chapter features a series of questions posed to the many actors who comprise preservation as it exists today about areas of progress. Are we contributing to equitable opportunities through support and expansion of skilled green jobs? Are we helping to build a more robust and creative imagination and awareness of the built environment and inspired action toward addressing crises of public health, housing, economy, and climate change? The chapter includes policy considerations and proposals that could contribute to important transformations both within preservation and within a larger network of allied actors. I discuss a series of questions or ‘problem sets’. These arrays of evaluation, written to policymakers, professionals, and the public and are organized into these domains of action: Green and Equitable Recovery for Climate Action; Re-building Alliances and Equity Preservation; Conservation, Circular Cities, and the Paradox of Thrift; Public Imagination, Visibility, and Remembrance; Transformation or Maintenance of the Status Quo. My hope is that this chapter will soon become antiquated, as policymakers and professionals, scholars and students, are able to provide robust answers to these queries. May the crises of today become a period of distant memories of the obstacles eventually overcome – a time that future generations pause to learn from.
The Northland Pattern Wall: City of Past and Future Craft is an assemblage artwork created by artist and architecture professor Dennis Maher with co-instructors and students of the Society for the Advancement of Construction Related Arts (SACRA) program. SACRA is an arts-based vocational training program providing construction skills training to individuals in need. It is based at Assembly House 150, an artist-led experiential learning center in Buffalo, New York. This article employs qualitative methods inspired by the hermeneutic spiral to examine the Northland Pattern Wall, SACRA, and Assembly House 150. This article highlights takeaways for heritage conservation, as well as allied professions, about the relevance of building trades and creative practices that help to shape and conserve the built environment. The story behind the Northland Pattern Wall is used as an opportunity to reflect on the potential to build stronger alliances between professionals, tradespersons, and artists in designing creatively out of the patterns of the past to build a more sustainable and equitable future city.
The built environment in US cities displays uneven geographies and patterns of spatial exclusion. Preservation, as a profession that cares for places and communities should help to redress these inequities. Likewise, socially engaged art and creative practices can act as catalysts for transformative change. This article describes three community engaged courses in which students drew connections between concepts of equitable preservation, socially engaged art, and the just city. The Equity Preservation Workshop focused on creating a toolkit of policies for preservation alliances with community development. In Just Places? Community Preservation, Art and Equity, students investigated how the arts can ignite historical consciousness and employ creative practices that repair, adapt, and preserve places. Art, Preservation, and the Just City generated ideas for creatively engaging youth with place, identities, and the built environment. Students conducted research with preservation organizations including the National Trust for Historic Preserva tion and Preservation Buffalo Niagara; a creative-placemaking program of Enterprise Community Partners; and Assembly House 150, a nonprofit in Buffalo that transforms lives and the built environment through art, design, and construction. This article describes these field investigations into the layers of intersection, interaction, and possibility between preservation, art, and social equity.